Pollution of grounds with oil and petroleum products from the point of view of synergetics (kinetic approach)

Roy Shirocov Статьи


    • Авторы:Khaustov A., Redina M., Khaustova N., Khutorova A., Shirokova V.
    • Журнал:GeoConference SGEM
    • Том:2
    • Номер:книга 5
    • Год издания:2016
    • Первая страница:619
    • Последняя страница:627
    • DOI:10.5593/SGEM2016/B52/S20.080
    • Аннотация:Hydrocarbon pollution of environments is the one of most distributed and at the same time not enough studied types of anthropogenic influences. The high intensity of geo- and biochemical processes, flows of the matter and energy connecting the hydrocarbon geotechnical system (HGS) with the external environment determines the necessity of use of the kinetic non-equilibrium approach for the forecast of fate of the polluting substances. Interaction between the intensive and extensive parameters of the HGS forms the centers of the development of kinetic processes (attractors) that determine the direction of the degradation of oil and petroleum products. Pollution processes and transformation of hydrocarbons in soils and grounds are fundamentally different. We consider the soils as a natural filter, and this is justified by the calculations of the kinetic of formation of different forms of compounds in vertical and lateral migration flows. The process of dispersion of the hydrocarbon pollution is multidirectional in space and time and it is characterized by various speeds of mobilization, immobilization and remobilization of hydrocarbons. The synergetic basis of the mechanical and diffuse forms of the migration of the hydrocarbon pollution is presented in the models as an interaction between the initial liquid-phase, water-soluble, exchange and fixed forms of hydrocarbons. A complex of kinetic models of destruction of oil compounds in the natural environments was of considered. They show different fate of compounds depending on the type of conditions and the defined ways of degradation and allow more precisely forecast the processes of pollution/ self-purification of environments. Processes of the natural destruction of oil are inert in the time, but from energy and end results side they prevail over all the artificial influences. Hydrocarbon pollution is non-equilibria on its nature due to the interaction of the external environment and internal processes and has an autowave character. The main driving force of disintegration (even for the persistent compounds) are water and microorganisms due to multistage transformation of hydrocarbons with participation of live substance.
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